This Article Statistics
Viewed : 793 Downloaded : 538 Cited : 1


Occurrence of the Spotted Sea Hare Aplysia dactylomela (Rang 1828, Aplysiidae) in the Yeşilovacık Bay, Norteastern Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

Deniz Ayas*, Gülsemin Şen Ağilkaya

DOI: 10.28978/nesciences.349286


The first record of the A. dactylomela from the Mediterranean Sea, in the Strait of Sicily waters was reported in 2002 (Trainito, 2003). Some reports of the A. dactylomela are given in the Mediterranean Sea in Table 1. A specimen of spotted sea hare was seen in a rock pool which was covered with algea. It was first recorded from Yeşilovacık Bay in 2017. Previous record of the species was noted in the Hatay coast of Turkey (Çinar et al. 2006). The present rapid communication reported the first record of A. dactylomela from the Yeşilovacık Bay. One specimen of A. dactylomela was photographed at the infralittoral zone of the Bay on 26 March, 2017, at a depth of 1 m in a rock pool togetter with Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) and other algea.


Spotted Sea Hare, Aplysia dactylomela, NE Mediterranean Sea

Download full text   |   How to Cite   |   Download XML Files

  • Barnes, R. (1963). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia/London: W.B. Saunders Company.
  • Bernat, P. & Molinari, A. (2016). Northernmost record of the alien sea hare Aplysia dactylomela rang, 1828 (opistobranchia, Aplysiidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. 47° Congresso della Società Italiana di Biologia Marina, Torino, 199-200.
  • Blum, M.S. (1996). Semiochemical parsimony in the Arthropoda. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 41: 353–374.
  • Chapman, D. J., Fox, D.L. (1969). Bile pigment metabolism in the sea hare Aplysia. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 4:71–78.
  • Çinar, M.E., Bilecenoglu, M., Öztürk, B. & Can, A. (2006). New records of alien species on the Levantine coast of Turkey. Aquatic Invasions, 1(2): 84-90.
  • Derby, C.D. (2007). Escape by inking and secreting: marine molluscs avoid predators through a rich array of chemicals and mechanisms. Biol. Bull. 213, 274–289.
  • Greco A. (2006). Segnalazione di Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 (Opisthobranchia: Aplysiidae) per il Mar Ionio (Sicilia orientale, Taormina). Boll. Malacol., 42(9-12): 125-128.
  • Ioannou, E., Nappo, M., Avila, C., Vagias, C. & Roussis, V. (2009). Metabolites from Aplysia fasciata. J Nat Prod., 72: 1716–1719.
  • Kamiya, H., Sakai, R. & Jimbo, M. (2006). Molluscs: bioactive molecules from sea hares. Cimino, G., Gavagnin, M. (Eds.), The chemo-ecological study to biotechnology application. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, pp. 215–239.
  • Katsanevakis, S. (2011). Rapid assessment of the marine alien megabiota in the shallow coastal waters of the Greek islands, Paros and Antiparos, Aegean Sea. Aquatic Invasions, 6(1): 133-137.
  • Kicklighter, C.E., Shabani, S., Johnson, P.M. & Derby, C.D. (2005). Sea hares use novel antipredatory chemical defenses. Curr. Biol. 15: 549–554.
  • Kljajić Z. & Mačić V. (2012). The alien sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 (Opistobranchia) in the Boka Kotorska Bay (Montenegro, Adriatic Sea). In: Thessalou-Legaki M., Aydogan Ö., Bekas P., Bilge G., Boyaci Y.Ö., Brunelli E., Circosta V., Crocetta F., Durucan F., Erdem M., Ergolavou A., Filiz H., Fois F., Gouva E., Kapiris K., Katsanevakis S., Kljajić Z., Konstantinidis E., Constantinou G., Koutsogiannopoulos D., Lamon S., Mačić V., Mazzette R., Meloni D., Mureddu A., Paschos I., Perdikaris C., Piras F., Poursanidis D., Ramos-Esplá A.A., Rosso A., Sordino P., Sperone E., Sterioti A., Taşkin E., Toscano F., Tripepi S., Tsiakkiros L., Zenetos A., New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records. Mediterr. Mar. Sci., 13(2): 319.
  • MacColl, R., Galivan, J., Berns, D.S., Nimec, Z., Guard-Friar, D. & Wagoner, D. (1990). The chromophore and polypeptide composition of Aplysia ink. Biol. Bull. 179:326–331.
  • MacFarland, F. (1909). The Opisthibranchiate Mollusca of the Branner-Agassiz expedition to Brazil. California: Stanford University.
  • Mannino A.M., Balistreri P. & Yokes M.B. (2014). First record of Aplysia dactylomela (Opisthobranchia: Aplysiidae) from the Egadi Islands (Western Sicily). Mar Biodiv Rec 7:e22.
  • McPhail, K.L., Davies-Coleman, M.T., Copley, R.C.B. & Eggleston, D. (1999). New halogenated sesquiterpenes from South African specimen of the circumtropical sea hare Aplysia dactylomela. J Nat Prod. 62: 1618–1623.
  • Pasternak, G. & Galil, B. S. (2010). Occurrence of the alien sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 (Opisthobranchia, Aplysiidae) in Israel. Aquatic Invasions, 5(4): 437-440.
  • Poursanidis D, Koutsoubas D, Crocetta F, Faulwetter S & Chatzigeorgiou G. (2009). Opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the island of Crete: new records and notes for their zoogeography and ecology. Abstracts, 11th ICZEGAR, 2009 Herakleion, Greece: 175.
  • Rüdiger, W. (1967). Aplysioviolin, ein neuartiger Gallenfarbstoff. HoppeSeyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 348: 129–138.
  • Schembri, P. (2008). Occurrence of the Alien Sea Hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 (Opisthobranchia, Aplysiidae) In Malta. Mediterranean Marine Science, 9(2): 111-114.
  • Tallita, C.L.T., Vanessa, L.R.N., Ilka, M.V., Valdirene, M.G., Maura, C., Ana, F.U.C. & Vânia, M.M.M. (2011). Further characterization and mode of action of dactylomelin-P, an antibacterial protein isolated from the ink of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela (Rang, 1828). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 407: 200–206.
  • Tobach, E., A. Zaferes & L. Migenis-Lopez. (1989). Aplysia ink and opaline: exploration of their relation to predation. Bulletin of Marine Science, 45: 664-670.
  • Trainito E. (2003). Arlecchini mediterranei. Guida ai molluschi opistobranchi del Mediterraneo. Ed. Taphros, Olbia (SS), 60 pp.
  • Turk, T. & Furlan, B. (2011). New records of Indo-Pacific and Atlantic mollusc species (Opisthobranchia) in the eastern Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea. Annales - Ser. Hist. Nat. 21(1): 5-10.
  • Vairappan, C.S., Anangdan, S.P. & Lee, T.K. (2007). Additional halogenated secondary metabolites from the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela. Malays J Sci 26: 57–64.
  • Wilbur, K. & C. Yonge. (1966). Physiology of Mollusca: Volume 2. New York: Academic Press.
  • Wisenden, B.D. (2000). Olfactory assessment of predation risk in the aquatic environment. Philo. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 377: 1205–1208.
  • Worms 2017. World register of marine species. www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138753, (03/2017).
  • Wyatt, T. D. (2003). Pheromones and Animal Behaviour: Communication by Smell and Taste. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Yokeş, M.B., Goren, M., Karhan, S.Ü., Demir, V., Kalkan, E., Galil, B.S. & A. Diamant, “Rapid expansion of recently introduced species populations off the mediterranean coast of Turkey,” 39th Congress-CIESM, Venice/Italy, Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Médit., 39:701, 2010”.
  • Yokes, M.B., Dalyan, C., Karhan, S.Ü., Demir, V., Tural, U. & Kalkan, E. (2012). Alien opisthobranchs from turkish coasts: First record of Plocamopherus tilesii bergh, 1877 from the Mediterranean. Triton, No:25, March 2012 Supplement 1-9.