<

This Article Statistics
Viewed : 45 Downloaded : 44 Cited : 0


 

Seasonal Variation in the Length-Weight Relationships and Condition Factor of Four Commercially Important Sea Cucumbers Species from Karachi Coast- Northern Arabian Sea

Quratulan Ahmed* , Alicia Poot-Salazar, Qadeer Mohammad Ali, Levent Bat

Abstract

Length-weight relationships and condition assessment are a common practice in fisheries analyses; however, such information is unknown for most sea cucumber species. The present study investigated length-weight relationships and relative condition indices of four commercially important sea cucumbers: Holothuria arenicola, Holothuria atra, Holothuria pardalis and Holothuria verrucosa. Additionally, the seasonal variations obtained between three climatic seasons (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) were analyzed. The results showed that the four species grow allometrically, with negative allometric b values ranging from 0.84 to 1.74. There were significant differences of length-weight relationships between climatic seasons for H. arenicola and H. atra. The lower b values were observed during post-monsoon and the higher b values during monsoon in three of the four species. During the post-monsoon, the condition of the bigger individuals of H. arenicola and H. atra was lower than that of the small individuals. The differences in length-weight relationships of H. pardalis and H. verrucosa were not significant between climatic events. The higher temperatures occurred during monsoon and the lower during post-monsoon, but these data only showed a significant correlation with the relative condition factor of H. arenicola. Best condition of the individuals of H. arenicola occurred at temperatures between 22 to 31°C. Studies about environmental variables and characteristics of the substratum type are necessary in order to complement the understanding of the length-weight relationships and condition of these species.

Keywords

Holothuria arenicola, Holothuria atra, Holothuria pardalis, Holothuria verrucosa, Karachi, Arabian Sea

 

Volume 3, No 3, 265-281 , 2018

Download full text   |   How to Cite   |   Download XML Files

References
  • Abdel Razek, F.A., Mona, M.H., Abdel Rahman, S.H., El Gamal, M.M., Moussa, E.M. & Taha, S.M. (2010). Observations on the Abundance of Holothurian Species Along the Alexandria Coast of Eastern Mediterranean Waters. Proceedings of the 89th ClESM Congress-Venice, May 10-14,2010, ltaly.
  • Abdel Razek, F.A., Abdel Rahman, S.H., Mona, M.H., El-Gamal, M.M. & Moussa, R.M. (2007). An Observation on the Effect of Environmental Conditions on Induced Fission of the Mediterranean Sand Sea Cucumber, Holothuria arenicola (Semper, 1868) in Egypt. SPC Beche de Mer Information Bulletin, 26, 33-34.
  • Ahmed, Q. & Ali, Q.M. (2014). Abundance and Distribution of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) with Emphasis on Heavy Metals Accumulation in Organism and Its Habitat, Project: Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, (Grant No. IPFP/HRD/HEC/1688).
  • Ahmed, Q., Ali, Q.M. & Conand, C. (2016). New Additions to the Holothurian Fauna of Pakistan: Holothuria verrucosa, Holothuria cinerascens and Ohshimella ehrenbergii. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 36, 20-23.
  • Ahmed, Q., Ali, Q.M. & Bat, L. (2017). Assessment of Heavy Metals Concentration in Holothurians, Sediments and Water Samples from Coastal Areas of Pakistan (Northern Arabian Sea). Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 5(5), 191-201.
  • Ahmed, Q., Ali, Q.M., Mazlan, N. & Bat, L. (2018). First Record of a-Sexual Reproduction by Fission in Holothuria (lessonothuria) verrucosa (Selenka, 1867) from Coastal Waters of Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, 5(1), 29-36.
  • Al-Rashdi, K.M., Claereboudt, M.R. & Al-Busaidi, S.S. (2007). Density and Size Distribution of the Sea Cucumber, Holothuria scabra (Jaeger, 1935), at Six Exploited Sites in Mahout Bay, Sultanate of Oman. Agricultural and Marine Science, 12, 43-51.
  • Aydın, M. (2016). Sea Cucumber (Holothuroidea) Species of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences, 2 (1), 49-58.
  • Chao, S.M. (1993). Reproductive Biology of Sea Cucumbers In Southern Taiwan (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), Ph.D. dissertation. Tunghai University, Taiwan.
  • Chao, S.M, Chen, C.P. & Alexander, P.S. (1994). Reproduction and Growth of Holothuria atra (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) at Two Contrasting Sites in Southern Taiwan. Marine Biology, 119, 565–570.
  • Clarke, S. (2004). Understanding Pressures on Fishery Resources Through Trade Statistics: A Pilot Study of Four Products in the Chinese Dried Seafood Market. Fish and Fisheries, 5, 53-74.
  • Conand, C. (1989). Les Holothuries Aspidochirotes du Lagon de Nouvelle-Calédonie: Biologie, Ėcologie et Exploitation, Etudes et Thèses, ORSTOM, Paris. 393 p.
  • Ebert, T.A. (1978). Growth and Size of the Tropical Sea Cucumber Holothuria (Halodeima) atra Jager at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Pacific Science, 32 (2), 183-191.
  • Ebert, T.A. & Russel, M.P. (1994). Allometry and Model II Non-Linear Regression. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 168, 367-372.
  • Edwards, C.L. (1908). Variation, Development and Growth in Holothuria floridana Pourtales and in Holothuria atra Jager. Biometrika, 6, 236-301.
  • Froese, R. (2006). Cube Law, Condition Factor and Weight–Length Relationships: History, Meta-Analysis and Recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22, 241-253.
  • Gadhavi, M.K., Kardani, H.K., Pathak, R.D. & Prajapat, P.C. (2014). Key Findings on Juvenile Settlement of Sea Cucumber Holothuria pardalis at Sikka Coast, Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, India, Ecology. Environment and Conservation, 20 (1), 165-168.
  • Gayanilo, F.C. & Pauly, D. (1997). FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools, Reference Manual, FAO Comput Inf Ser Fisheries, 8, FAO, Rome, 261 p.
  • Gerritsen, H.D. & McGrath, D. (2007). Significant Differences in the Length–Weight Relationships of Neighbouring Stocks can Result in Biased Biomass estimates: Examples of Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, L.) and Whiting (Merlangius merlangus, L.). Fisheries Research, 85, 106-111.
  • Haider, M.S., Sultana, R., Jamil, K., Lakht,-e-Zehra, Tarar, O.M., Shirin, K. and Afzal, W. (2015). A Study on Proximate Composition, Amino Acid Profile, Fatty Acid Profile and Some Mineral Contents in Two Species of Sea Cucumber. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 25 (1), 168-175.
  • Hannah, L., Duprey, N., Blackburn, J., Hand, C.M. & Pearce, C.M. (2012). Growth Rate of the California Sea Cucumber Parastichopus californicus: Measurement Accuracy, and Relationships Between Size and Weight Metrics. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 32, 167–176.
  • Herrero-Pérezrul, M.D. & Reyes-Bonilla, H. (2008). Weight-Length Relationship and Relative Condition of the Holothurians Isostichopus fuscus at Espíritu Santo Island, Gulf of California, México. Revista de Biología Tropical, 56 (Suppl 3), 273-280.
  • Kamaruzzaman, A., Waznah, S., Shahbudin, S., Jalal, K.C.A. & Ong, M.C. (2010). The Temporal Variation of Organic Carbon during the Pre-Monsoon and Post-Monsoon Seasons in Pahang River-Estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 26 (4), 1309-1313.
  • Kandan, S. (1994). Studies on Sea-Cucumbers of Minicoy, Lakshadweep. PhD Thesis, Cochin University of Science and Technology. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Cochin, 682 014, India, 291 p.
  • Kazanidis, G., Antoniadou, C., Lolas, A.P., Neofitou, N., Vafidis, D., Chintiroglou, C. & Neofitou, C. (2010). Population Dynamics and Reproduction of Holothuria tubulosa (Holothuroidea: Echinodermata) in the Aegean Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association United Kingdom, 90 (5), 895-901.
  • Le Cren, E.D. (1951). The Length-Weight Relationship and Seasonal Cycle in Gonad Weight and Condition in the Perch (Perca fluviatilis). Journal of Animal Ecology, 20, 201-219.
  • Lee, D., Kim, S., Park, M. & Yang, Y. (2014). Weight Estimation of the Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) Using Vision-Based Volume Measurement. Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, 9, 742-749.
  • Marquardt, D.W. (1963). An Algorithm for Least-Squares Estimation of Non-Linear Parameters. Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 11, 431–41.
  • Mercier, A., Battaglene, S.C. & Hamel, J.F. (2000). Settlement Preferences and Early Migration of Thetropical Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra. The Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 249, 89–110.
  • Morgan, A.D. (2000). Induction of Spawning in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). The World Aquaculture Society, 31 (2), 186–194.
  • Natan, Y., Uneputty, Pr A., Lewerissa, Y.A. & Pattikawa, J.A. (2015). Species and Size Composition of Sea Cucumber in Coastal Waters of UN Bay, Southeast Maluku, Indonesia. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 3(1), 251-256.
  • Poot-Salazar, A., Hernȧndez-Flores, Á. & Ardisson, P.L. (2014). Use of the SLW Index to Calculate Growth Function in the Sea Cucumber Isostichopus badionotus. Scientific Reports, 4 (5151), 1-7.
  • Prescott, J., Riwu, J., Steenbergen, D.J. & Stacey, N. (2015). Governance and Governability: the Small-Scale Purse Seine Fishery in Pulau Rote, Eastern Indonesia. In: Jentoft S, Chuenpagdee R (eds) Interactive Governance of Small Scale Fisheries: Global Reflections. MARE Series 13. Springer, New York, pp, 61–84.
  • Purcell, S. & Tekanene, M. (2006). Ontogenetic Changes in Colouration and Morphology of White Teat Fish, Holothuria fuscogilva, Juveniles in Kiribati. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 23, 29-31.
  • Purcell, S.W., Gossuin, H. & Agudo, N.S. (2009). Status and Management of the Sea Cucumber Fishery of La Grande Terre, New Caledonia. World Fish Center Studies and Review Nº 1901, The World Fish Center, Penang, Malaysia, 136 p.
  • Purcell SW. (2010). Managing Sea Cucumber Fisheries with an Ecosystem Approach to Managing Sea Cucumber Fisheries, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No.520, Rome, FAO,157 p.
  • Purcell, S.W., Samyn, Y. & Conand, C. (2012). Commercially Important Sea Cucumbers of the World, FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes, No. 6, FAO, Rome. 150 p.
  • Purcell, S.W. & Agudo, N.S. (2013). Optimisation of Mesh Enclosures for Nursery Rearing of Juvenile Sea Cucumbers, Plos One, 8(5), e64103.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064103.
  • Purcell, S.W., Mercier, A., Conand, C., Hamel, J.F., Toral-Granda, M.V., Lovatelli, A. & Uthicke, S. (2013). Sea Cucumber Fisheries: Global Analysis of Stocks, Management Measures and Drivers of Overfishing. Fish and Fisheries, 14 (1), 34–59.
  • Purcell, S.W., Polidoro, B.A., Hamel, J.F., Gamboa, R.U. & Mercier, A. (2014). The Cost of Being Valuable: Predictors of Extinction Risk in Marine Invertebrates Exploited as Luxury Seafood. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 281, 20133296, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3296.
  • Ram, R., Chand, R.V. & Southgate, P.C. (2016). An Overview of Sea Cucumber Fishery Management in the Fiji Islands. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 11, 191-205.
  • Ramón, M., Lleonart, J. & Massutí, E. (2010). Royal Cucumber (Stichopus regalis) in the Northwestern Mediterranean: Distribution Pattern and Fishery. Fisheries Research, 105, 21-27.
  • Ricker, W.E. (1973). Linear Regressions in Fishery Research. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 30 (3), 409-434.
  • Ricker, W.E. (1975). Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 191,1-382.
  • Sang, C. (1963). Biology of the Japanese Common Sea Cucumber Stichopus japonicus Selenka. Pusan National University, 236 pp.
  • Siddique, S., Ayub, Z. & Siddiqui, G. (2014). Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor in Holothuria arenicola (Holothuroidea: Echinodermata) Found on Two Rocky Coasts of Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences, 23, (1and2), 51-63.
  • Slater, M.J. and Carton, A.G. (2009). Effect of Sea Cucumber (Australostichopus mollis) Grazing on Coastal Sediments Impacted by Mussel Farm Deposition. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58, 1123-1129.
  • Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J. (1997). Biometry: the Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. W. H. Freeman and Co, New York.
  • Uthicke, S. & Benzie, J.A.H. (2000). The Effect of Beche-de-Mer Fishing on Densities and Size Structure of Holothuria nobilis (Echinodermata: Holothurioidea) Populations on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs, 19, 271-276.
  • Zar, J.H. (1984). Biostatistical Analysis, Second Edition.Prentice-Hall International, Inc, Englewood Clifs New Jersey 07632, pp.718.