This Article Statistics
Viewed : 16 Downloaded : 13 Cited : 0


Comparison of Hydrothermal Method and Ultrasonic Method in Zeolite Synthesis and Investigation of Catalytic Activities of Synthesized Zeolites

Vildan Özkan* , Zeki Aydin, Abdullah Özkan


In this study, ZSM-5 and beta zeolites, which constitutes the most industrially important artificial zeolite species., were synthesized and the effects of synthesized zeolite in catalytic cracking were investigated. ZSM-5 and beta zeolite were synthesized by varying synthesis time, synthesis method and calcination temperatures. The composition of the synthesis was kept constant and than compared with ultrasonic method and hydrothermal method. ZSM-5 and beta zeolite derivatives were synthesized with changing the synthesis method. Beta zeolite is obtained as a result of the synthesis with low temperature in 20 minutes with using of ultrasonic method. On the other hand, ZSM-5 zeolite is achieved at the end of the synthesis with high temperature in 72 hours with using of hidrotermal method. The X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) patterns and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of ZSM-5 zeolites showed that the crystal structure and phase purity of ZSM-5 increased with increase in synthesis time and not affected by the calcination temperature. Otherwise, the crystal structure and phase purity of beta zeolite increased with increase in calcination temperature. To determine the catalytic performances of the products, the catalytic cracking processes were performed. First of all, thermal cracking was realized without catalyst for comparison with the others. Then, catalytic cracking was carried out with CaO, Al2O3, SiO2, natural zeolite, ZSM-5 and beta zeolite. Compairing the results, the catalytic efficiency of the synthesized products were higher than the others. Yield of over 70 % was obtained with synthesized ZSM-5 and zeolite beta.


Synthesis of zeolite, ZSM-5, zeolite Beta, catalytic cracking, the catalyst


Volume 3, No 3, 282-291 , 2018

Download full text   |   How to Cite   |   Download XML Files

  • Askari S., Alipour S.M., Halladj R., Farahani M.H.D.A. (2013). Effects of Ultrasound on The Synthesis of Zeolites: a Review. Journal of Porous Materials, 20(1), 285-302.
  • Castro, K.K.V., Figueiredo, A.L., Gondim, A.D., Coriolano, A.C.F., Alves, A.P.M., Fernandes Jr., V.J., Araujo, A.S. (2014). Pyrolysis of Atmospheric Residue of Petroleum (ATR) Using AlSBA-15 Mesoporous Material by TG and Py-GC/MS. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 117(2), 953–959.
  • Coelho, A., Costa, L., Marques, M.M., Fonseca, I.M., Lemos, M.A.N.D.A., Lemos, F. (2012). The Effect of ZSM-5 Zeolite Acidity on the Catalytic Degradation of High-Density Polyethylene Using Simultaneous DSC/TG Analysis. Applied Catalysis A: General. 413(414), 183–191.
  • Demirkan, K. (2002). Influence of Synthesis Parameters on the Properties of ZSM-5 & on Their Catalytic Activity for 1-Butene Isomerization. Master of Science, İzmir Institute of Technology. 66 p, İzmir.
  • Gür, N. (2006). Synthesis of Zeolite Beta for Composite Membranes. Master's Thesis, ODTÜ. 85s, Ankara.
  • Huang, W., Huang, M., Huang, C., Chen, C., Ou, K. (2010). Thermochemical Conversion of Polymer Wastes Into Hydrocarbon Fuels Over Various Fluidizing Cracking Catalysts. Fuel, 89, 2305–2316.
  • Khoshbin, R., Karimzadeh, R. (2017). The Beneficial Use of Ultrasound in Free Template Synthesis of Nanostructured ZSM-5 Zeolite from Rice Husk Ash Used in Catalytic Cracking of Light Naphtha: Effect of Irradiation Power. Advanced Powder Technology, 28(3), 973–982.
  • Kim, K., Ryoo, R., Jang, H., Choi. M. (2012). Spatial Distribution, Strength, and Dealumination Behavior of Acid Sites in Nanocrystalline MFI Zeolites and Their Catalytic Consequences, Journal of Catalysis. 288, 115–123.
  • Kumar, S., Panda, A.K., Singh, R.K. (2011). A Review on Tertiary Recycling of High-Density Polyethylene to Fuel. Resources. Conservation and Recycling, 55, 893–910.
  • Mastral, J.F., Berrueco, C., Gea, M., Ceamanos, J. (2006). Catalytic Degradation of High Density Polyethylene over Nanocrystalline HZSM-5 zeolite. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 91, 3330–3338.
  • Rahimi, N., Karimzadeh, R. (2011). Catalytic Cracking of Hydrocarbons over Modified ZSM-5 Zeolites to Produce Light Olefins: A Review, Applied Catalysis A., 398, 1–17.
  • Seo, Y.H., Lee, K.H., Suh, D.H. (2003). Shin, Investigation of Catalytic Degradation of High-Density Polyethylene by Hydrocarbon Group Type Analysis. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 70, 383–398.
  • Sevil, Y. (2003). Oil in The World and Turkey. T.C. Prime Ministry Undersecretaries of Foreign Trade General Directorate of Economic Research and Evaluation. http://tr.scribd.com/doc/6705738/Dunyada-Ve-Turkiyede-Petrol.
  • Tissler, A., Polanek, P., Girrbach, U., Muller, U., Unger, K.K. (1989). Control of Catalytic Properties of ZSM-5 Made by Fast and Template-Free Synthesis. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, 46, 399–408.
  • Zeng, P., Guo, X., Zhu, X., Guo, Q., Wang, Y., Ren, S., Shen, B. (2017). On The Synthesis and Catalytic Cracking Properties of Al-ITQ-13 Zeolites. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 246, 186–192.
  • Zhang, H., Ma, Y., Song, K., Zhang, Y., Tang, Y. (2013). Nano-Crystallite Oriented Self-Assembled ZSM-5 Zeolite and Its LDPE Cracking Properties: Effects of Accessibility and Strength of Acid Sites. Journal of Catalysis, 302, 115–125.
  • Zhang, L., Liu, S., Xie, S., Xu, L. (2012). Organic Template-Free Synthesis of ZSM-5/ZSM−11 Co-Crystalline Zeolite. Microporous Mesoporous Materials, 147, 117–126.