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Relationships of Formation, Migration and Trapping Between Petroleum and Iodine

Adil Ozdemir *

Abstract

Iodine is scarcely found on the Earth’s crust. 99.6 % of the Earth’s crust is composed of 32 main elements. The remaining 0.4 % is shared among the 64 trace elements. Ranking 61 among these 64 elements in terms of abundancy, iodine is one of the scarcest non-metal elements within the composition of the Earth’s crust. The biological connection between iodine and carbon systems is well established. There is a strong relation between organic C and iodine concentrations in marine sediments. Iodine is found in low concentration in sedimentary rocks. The compliance of iodine with evaporite minerals is lower than that of bromine. Shales generally contain high iodine concentrations like 1-20 ppm. The iodine amount found in sedimentary rocks can not be found in any rock forming mineral and can not be absorbed in clay. It is more related with preserved organic C. High amounts of iodine concentrations are measured in shales containing kerogen, the primary organic matter. As the iodine content increases in shales, the oil and organic carbon content also increase. Organic-rich sediments or their volatile derivatives (hydrocarbons), are the main sources of iodine in many sedimentary basins. Iodine enrichment in waters increases with the proximity to the petroleum reservoirs and the depth of burial. Iodine has been asserted by Russians as a hydrogeochemical indicator for petroleum. Iodine has been used in many studies as a sensitive tracer to discover an oil and/or gasfield. Iodine generally migrates together with organic matters due to its proximity to organic matters and is a good tracer for hydrocarbon migration and the movement history of the related waters. In this study, it is shown that 129I isotope system can provide useful information in reducing the costs of oil and gas exploration activities and to increase the efficiency. Current studies showed that supporting the geological and geophysical survey with iodine hydrogeochemistry and soil geochemistry increases the efficiency of petroleum exploration. Use of iodine for discovery of oil and/or gasfields has the advantage of both having reliable and consistent results and being simple and cost effective.

Keywords

Petroleum exploration, iodine, geochemical indicator, geochemistry, oilfield brine, formation water

Volume 3, No 3, Supplement, pp 110-153, 2018



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