This Article Statistics
Viewed : 6183 Downloaded : 2863


Climate Change and Biodiversity Effects in Turkish Seas

Cemal Turan*, Deniz Erguden, Mevlüt Gürlek

DOI: 10.28978/nesciences.286240


Sea temperature change in the Mediterranean, Marmara and Black Sea coasts of Turkey and its biodiversity effects are investigated. The surface sea water temperatures of the Mediterranean, Marmara and Black Sea region of Turkey for last 41 years showed increased trends in Mediterranean Sea (Iskenderun, Mersin and Antalya), Marmara Sea (Istanbul) and Black Sea (Samsun). The number of Indo-Pacific species is getting rapidly increased for the last decade that caused increased invasion of the Indo-Pacific species and significant shift of biodiversity in Turkish Seas. This settlement process is probably accelerated or facilitated by global climate change and overfishing of native species. Nowadays, the occurrence of Atlantic-Mediterranean (Lithognathus mormyrus, Serranus hepatus and Callinectes sapidus) and Indo-Pacific (Stephanolepis diaspros, Lagocephalus spadiceus) originated species in the Marmara and Black Seas can also be an important indicator of the process of Mediterranization of the Marmara and Black Seas.


Climate Change, Turkish Seas, Surface Sea Temperature, Biodiversity.

Download full text   |   How to Cite   |   Download XML Files

  • Bilecenoğlu, M., Kaya, M., Cihangir, B., Çiçek, E. (2014). An updated checklist of the marine fishes of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38, 901-929.
  • Belkin, I.M. (2009). Rapid warming of Large Marine Ecosystems. Progress in Oceanography, 81 (1-4), 207-213.
  • Dalgıç, G., Gümüş, A., Zengin, M. (2013). First record of brown comber Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus, 1758) for the Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 37, 523-524.
  • Doğdu, S.A., Uyan, A., Uygur, N., Gurlek, M., Erguden, D., Turan, C. (2016). First record of the Indo-Pacific striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787) from Turkish marine waters. Natural and Engineering Sciences, 1 (2).
  • Engin, S., Turan, D., Kovacic, M. (2007). First record of the redmouthed goby, Gobius cruentatus (Gobiidae), in the Black Sea. Cybium, 31(1), 87-88.
  • Eschmeyer, W. N. (ed). Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. (http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp). Accessed 21.03.2016.
  • Gökoğlu, M. & Özvarol, Y. (2015). Epiınephelus coioides (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Serranidae) a new lessepsian migrant in the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria,45 (3), 307-309.
  • Gurlek, M. Erguden, D., Doğdu, S.A., Turan, C. (2016a). First record of the Indo-Pacific soldier bream Argyrops filamentosus (Valenciennes, 1830) from the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 32, In press.
  • Gurlek, M., Erguden, D., Dogdu, S.A., Turan, C. (2016b). First record greenback horse mackerel, Trachurus declivis (Jenyns, 1841) in the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 32, In press.
  • IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon, S. et al. (Eds.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Karas J. 2006. Climate change and the Mediterranean region. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/planet-2/report/2006/3. 1-34.
  • Koukouras, A., Voultsiadou E., Kitsos M.S., Doulgeraki, S. (2001). Macrobenthic fauna diversity in the Aegean Sea, affinities with other Mediterranean regions and the Black Sea. Bios, 6, 61-76.
  • Kovacic, M. & Engin, S. (2009). First record of the zebra goby, Zebrus zebrus (Gobiidae), in the Black Sea. Cybium, 33(1), 83-84.
  • Lascaratos, A., Roether, W., Nittis, K., Klein, B. (1999). Recent changes in deep water formation and spreading in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: a review. Progress in Oceanography, 44, 5-36.
  • Lasram, F.B.R. & Mouillot, D. (2009). Increasing southern invasion enhances congruence between endemic and exotic Mediterranean fish fauna. Biological Invasions, 11, 697-711.
  • Lionello, P. (Ed), (2012). The climate of the Mediterranean region: From the past to the future. Elsevier Edition.
  • Morri, C., Puce, S., Bianchi, C.N., Bitar, G., Zibrowius, H., Bavestrello, G. (2009). Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Levant Sea (mainly Lebanon), with emphasis on alien species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K, 89 (1), 49-62.
  • Nelson, J.S. (2006). Fishes of the World. 4th edition. In: John Wiley and Sons, eds. New York.
  • Por, F.D. (2009). Tethys returns to the Mediterranean: success and limits of tropical re-colonization. BioRisk, 3, 5-19.
  • Por, F.D. 2010. Climate Optimum rejuvenates the Mediterranean marine world. Integrative Zoology, 5, 112-121.
  • Rilov, G. & Treves, H. (2010). Climate change effects on marine ecological communities. pp. 51-68. Israel et al. (Eds.) In: Role of seaweeds in future globally changing environments. Cell Origin Life Extr Hab Astrob Ser 15. Springer, Berlin.
  • Tokarev, Y. & Shulman, G. (2007). Biodiversity in the Black Sea: effects of climate and anthropogenic factors. Hydrobiologia. 58, 23-33.
  • TUDAV, (2016). http://www.tudav.org/index.php/en/climate-change/197-climate-change-and-turkish-seas
  • Turan, C. (Ed), (2007). Atlas and Systematic of Marine Bony Fishes of Turkey. Nobel Publishing House, Adana, Turkey.
  • Turan, C. (2010). Status and Trend of Lessepsian Species in Marine Waters of Turkey. EastMed Sub-regional Technical meeting on the Lessepsian migration and its impact on eastern Mediterranean fishery. FAO-EastMed Working Document, Nicosia, 7-9 December 2010.
  • Turan, C., Demirhan, S.A, Ergüden, D., Yağlıoğlu, D., Gürlek, M., Gürlek, Mu., Güngör, M., Seyhan, D., Özbalcılar, B., Özcan, T. (2012). Küresel İklim Değişikliği Sonucu Akdeniz’e Göç Eden Lessepsiyen Türlerin Stok Yoğunluğunun ve Endemik Türlere Olan Etkilerinin Araştırılması. Proje No: TAGEM-09/AR-GE/11 TAGEM projesi sonuç raporu. [In Turkish.]
  • Turan, C., Ergüden, D., Uygur, N., Gürlek, M., Erdoğan, Z., Sönmez, B., Uyan, A., Karan, S., Doğdu, S.A. (2015). First record of the Indian Ocean two spot cardinalfish, Cheilodipterus novemstriatus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Apogonidae), from Turkish Marine Waters. Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatorıa, 45(3), 319-322.
  • Turley, C.M. (1999). The changing Mediterranean Sea - a sensitive ecosystem? Progress in Oceanography, 44, 387-400.
  • UNEP-MAP-RAC/SPA (2008). Impact of climate change on biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea. pp. 1-61. T. Perez, (Ed.). RAC/SPA Edition, Tunis.
  • Unluata, U., Oguz, T., Latif, M.A., Ozsoy, E. (1990). On the physical oceanography of the Turkish Straits. pp. 25-60. In: The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits. L.J. Pratt (Ed.). NATO/ASI Series, Kluwer, Dordrecht.
  • Villegas-Hernández, H., Muñoz, M., Lloret, J. (2016). Life-history traits of temperate and thermophilic barracudas (Teleostei: Sphyraenidae) in the context of sea warming in the Mediterranean Sea, Journal of Fish Biology, in press.
  • Yağlıoğlu, D., Turan, C., Öğreden T. 2014. First record of blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun 1896) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae) from the Turkish Black Sea coast. Journal of Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 20 (1), 13˗17.