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Characterization and Construction of a Robust and Elastic Wall-Less Flow Phantom for High Pressure Flow Rate Using Doppler Ultrasound Applications

Ammar A. Oglat *, MZ Matjafri, Nursakinah Suardi , Mohammad A. Oqlat, Ahmad A. Oqlat, Mostafa A Abdelrahman, O.F.Farhat, Muntaser S. Ahmad, Batool N. Alkhateb, Sylvester J. Gemanam, Sabri M.Shalbi, Raed Abdalrheem, Marwan Shipli, Mohammad Marashdeh


A Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can be used to estimate the blood flow through the vessels. Presently, few flow phantoms are being used to be qualified for long-term utilize and storage with high physiological flow rate Doppler ultrasound. The main drawback of the two hydrogel materials items (Konjac (K) and carrageenan (C) (KC)) that it is not fit for long-term storage and easy to deteriorate. Thus, this research study focuses on the characterization and construction of a robust and elastic wall-less flow phantom with suitable acoustical properties of TMM. The mechanisms for the fabrication of a wall-less flow phantom utilizing a physically strong material such as K, C, and gelatin (bovine skin)-based TMM were explained. In addition, the clinical ultrasound (Hitachi Avius (HI)) system was used as the main instrument for data acquisition. Vessel mimicking material (VMM) with dimensions of 15.0 mm depth equal to those of human common carotid arteries (CCA) were obtained with pulsatile flow. The acoustical properties (speed of sound and attenuation were 1533±2 m/s and 0.2 dB/cm. MHz, respectively) of a new TMM were agreed with the IEC 61685 standards. Furthermore, the velocity percentages error were decreased with increase in the Doppler angle (the lowest % error (3%) it was at 53◦). The gelatin from bovine skin was a proper material to be added to KC to enhance the strength of TMM during for long-term utilize and storage of high-flow of blood mimicking Fluid (BMF). This wall-less flow phantom will be a suitable instrument for examining in-vitro research studies.


BMF, TMM, Wall-less Flow Phantom, Acoustical Properties, Clinical Doppler Ultrasound (HI).

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