<

This Article Statistics
Viewed : 113 Downloaded : 62


 

Investigation of antiseptic resistance genes in Staphylococcus spp. isolates

Mustafa Akin, Birgül Özcan* , Zafer Cantekin, Yaşar Ergün, Dilşad Bulanık

Abstract

Antiseptic and disinfectants are used very frequently in all health institutions, including hospital and veterinary application areas, in the home environment and food production industry, to prevent infections and contaminations. At present, the quaternary ammonium compounds, benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine digluconate is one of the divalent cations most commonly used chemicals such as antiseptics and disinfectants. However, the widespread use of biocides has brought about the emergence of bacteria resistant to antiseptics/disinfectants. It is known that bacteria develop resistance mechanisms against antibiotics as well as disinfectants. Epidemiological data on antiseptic susceptibility and distribution of resistance genes are very important for nosocomial infections. Some species, including the species belong to genus Staphylococcus, cause foodborne poisoning and various clinical infections such as skin and soft tissue and surgical site infections, endocarditis, mastitis, pneumonia and bacteremia in humans and animals. Staphylococcus strains can contain plasmid-derived qacA/B and qacC genes that provide resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC). In this study, the presence of antiseptic resistance genes (qacA/B and qacC) in 90 Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated from chicken carcass, bovine tank milk, various cheeses and bovine clinical mastitis samples were determined by simplex polymerase chain reaction. QacA/B was found in %18.8 and qacC in %2.2 of the studied isolates. Of antiseptic resistance genes, qacA/B was detected in cheese and bovine clinical mastitis samples, and qacC in chicken carcass.

Keywords

Antiseptic resistance genes, Bovine clinical mastitis, Chicken carcass, Cheese, Bovine tank milk.

Download full text   |   How to Cite   |   Download XML Files

References
  • Ammar, A.M., Attia, A.M., Abd El-Hamid, M.I., El-Shorbagy, I.M., & Abd El-Kader, S.A. (2016). Genetic basis of resistance waves among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from milk and meat products in Egypt. Cellular and Molecular biology, 62(10), 7-15.
  • Anthonisen, I.L., Sunde, M., Stenium, T.M., Sidhu, M.S., & Sørum, H. (2002). Organization of the antiseptic resistance gene qacA and Tn552-related beta-lactamase genes in multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains of animal and human origins. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 46(11), 3606-3612.
  • Bischoff, M., Bauer, J., Preikschat, P., Schwaiger, K., Mölle, G., & Hölzel, C. (2012). First Detection of the Antiseptic Resistance Gene qacA/B in Enterococcus faecalis. Microbial Drug Resistance, 18(1), 7-12.
  • Bjorland, J., Sunde, M., & Waage, S. (2001). Plasmid-Borne smr Gene Causes Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Bovine Staphlococcus aureus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39(11), 3999-4004.
  • Bjorland, J., Stenium, T., Sunde, M., Waage, S., and Hair, E. (2003). Novel Plasmid-Borne Gene qacJ Mediates Resistance o Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Equine Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus intermedius. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 47(10), 3046-3052.
  • Bjorland, J., Stenium, T., Kvitle, B., Waage, S., Sunde, M., & Heir, E. (2005). Widespread Distribution of Disinfectant Resistance Genes Among Staphylococci of Bovine and Caprine Origin İn Norway. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 43, 4363-4368.
  • Boyce, J.M., & Pittet, D. (2002). Guidelines for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51(RR-16), 1-45.
  • Bragg, R.R., Jansen, A., Coetzee, M., van der Westhuizen, W., & Boucher, C. (2013). Bacterial Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC) Disinfectants. Edt: Adhikari, R., Thapa, S. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol 808: Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine II. p: 1-13. Springer, New Delhi, İndia.
  • Cantekin, Z., Ergun, Y., Solmaz, H., & Tek, E. (2019). Detection of Slime Genes and Antiseptic/Antibiotic-Resistance Genes İn Staphylococcal İsolates From Damascus Goats with Subclinical Mastitis. Revuede Médecine Vétérinaire, 170, 7-9, 174-178.
  • Conceição, T., Co, C., Lencastre, H., & Aires-de-Sousa, M. (2016). High Prevalence of Biocide Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Three African Countries. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 60(1), 678-681.
  • Damavandi, M.S., Dehkordi, M.S., Denghan, A., & Heibati, F. (2017). Detection of Antiseptic Resistance Genes Among Staphylococcus aureus Colonising Nurses and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Clinical Specimens at Teaching Hospitals in Southwest of Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 10(1), 1-7.
  • Do Vale, B.C.M., Nogueira, A.G., Cidral, T.A., Lopes, M.C.S., & de Melo, M.C.N. (2019). Decreased susceptibility to chlorhexidine and distribution of qacA/B genes among coagulase-negative Staphylococcus clinical samples. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19, 1999.
  • Ebner, R., Johler, S., Sihto, H.M., Stephan, R., & Zweifel, C. (2013). Microarray-Based Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated Obtained from Chicken Carcasses. Journal of Food Protection, 76(8), 1471-1474.
  • Gillespie, M.T., Lyon, B.R., & Skurray, R.A. (1989). Gentamicin and antiseptic resistance in epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet, 1(8336), 503.
  • Grinius, L.L., Dreguniene, G., Goldberg, E.B., Liao, C.H., & Projan, S.J. (1992). A Staphylococcal multidrug resistance gene product is a member of a new protein family. Plasmid, 27, 119-129.
  • Grinius, L.L., & Goldberg, E.B. (1994). Bacterial multidrug resistance is due to a single membrane protein which functions as a drug pump. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 269, 29998-30004.
  • Hegstad, K., Langsrud, S., Lunestad, B.T., Scheie, A.A., Sunde, M., & Yazdankhah, S.P. (2010). Does the wide use of quaternary ammonium compounds enhance the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance and thus threaten our health? Microbial Drug Resistance, 16, 91-104.
  • Ignak, S., Nakipoğlu, Y., and Gurler, B. (2017). Frequency of antiseptic resistance genes in clinical staphylococci and enterococci isolates in Turkey. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 6, 88.
  • Lyon, B.R., & Skurray, R. (1987). Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus: genetic basic. Microbiology Reviews, 51, 88-134.
  • McDonnell, G., & Russell, A.D. (1999). Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12, 147-179.
  • Monecke, S., Ruppelt, A., Wendlant, S., Schwarz, S., Slickers, P., Ehricht, R., & Cortez de Jäckel, S. (2013). Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diseased poultry. Veterinary Microbiology, 162(2-4), 806-812.
  • Noguchi, N., Suwa, J., Nauri, K., Sasatsu, M., Ito, T., Hiramatsu, K., & Song, J.H. (2005). Susceptibilities to antiseptic agents and distribution of antiseptic-resistance genes qacA/B and smr of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isoalted in Asia during 1998 and 1999. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 54, 557-565.
  • Noguchi, N., Nakaminami, H., Nishijima, S., Kurokawa, I., So, H., & Sasatsu, M. (2006). Antimicrobial agent of susceptibilities and antiseptic resistance gene distribution among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44(6), 2119-2125.
  • Paulsen, I.T., Brown, M.H., Littlejohn, T.G., Mitcheel, B.A., & Skurray, R.A. (1996). Multidrug resistance proteins QacA and QacB from Staphylococcus aureus: membrane topology and identication of residues involved in substrate specificity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 93(8), 3630-3635.
  • Sambrook, J., & Russell, D. (2001). Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 3rd edn. p: 2028. Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory, New York, USA.
  • Schleifer, K.H., & Bell, J.A. (2009). Staphylococcus. Edt: Vos, P., Garrity, G., Jones, D., Krieg, N.R., Ludwig, W., Rainey, F.A., Schleifer, K.H., Whitman, W. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes. P: 392-421. Springer, New York, USA.
  • Schlett, C.D., Millar, E.V., Crawford, K.B., Cui, T., Lanier, J.B., Tribble, D.R., & Ellis, M.W. 2014. Prevalence of chlorhexidine-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus following prolonged exposure. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 58(8), 4404-4410.
  • Sheng, W.H., Wang, J.T., Lauderdale, T.L., Weng, C.M., Chen, D., & Chang, S.C. 2009. Epidemiology and susceptibilities of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan: emphasis on chlorhexidine susceptibility. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 63(3), 309-313.
  • Turchi, B., Bertelloni, F., Marzoli, F., Gerri, D., Tola, S., Azara, E., Longheu, C.M., Tassi, R., Schiavo, M., Cilia, G., & Fratini, F. (2020). Coagulase negative staphylococci from ovine milk: Genotyping and phenotypic characterization of susceptibility to antibiotics, disinfectants and biofilm production. Small Ruminant Research, 183, 1-7.
  • Wang, J.T., Sheng, W.H., Wang, J.L., Chen, D., Chen, M.L., Chen, Y.C., & Changs, S.C. (2008). Longitudinal analysis of chlorhexidine susceptibilities of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a teaching hospital in Tawian. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 62(3), 514-517.
  • Wassenaar, T.M., Ussery, D., Nielsen, L.N., & Ingmer, H. (2015). Review and Phylogenetic Analysis of qac Genes That Reduce Susceptibility to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds In Staphylococcus Species. European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology, 5(1), 44-61.
  • Weber, D.J., Rutala, W.A., & Seikbert-Bennet, E.E. (2007). Outbreaks associated with contaminated antiseptics and disinfectants. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 51(12), 4217-4224.
  • Wendlant, S., Kadlec, K., Fessler, A.T., Mevius, D., van Essen-Zandbergen, A., Hengeveld, P.D., Bosch, T., Schouls, L., Schwarz, S., & van Duijkeren, E. (2013). Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates on broiler farms. Veterinary Microbiology, 167(3-4), 632-637.
  • Wong, T.Z., Zhang, M., O’Donoghue, M., & Boost, M. (2013). Presence of antiseptic resistance genes in porcine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Veterinary Microbiology, 162(2-4), 977-979.
  • Zmantar, T., Koudhi, B., Miladi, H., & Bakhrouf, A. (2011). Detection of macrolide and disinfectant resistance genes in clinical Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. BMC Research Notes, 4, 453.