This Article Statistics
Viewed : 160 Downloaded : 101


Effect of Activated Carbon in Yogurt Production

Emin Zümrütdal* , Farhad Zarifi, Esra Sündüz Yiğittekin, Erman Salih İstifli, Tuba Şimşek Mertoğlu, Nevin Türüt, Nacide Kızıldağ Özdal, Derya Akalan, Mehmet Burak Koca, Fatıma Masume Uslu, Mine Çürük, Hakan Özkan, Sadık Dinçer, Güray Kılınççeker

DOI: 10.28978/nesciences.1098648


Yogurt has been one of the leading consumption products of fermented milk products for centuries and has many positive effects in terms of human health. However, yogurt consumption is sometimes a problem for individuals with lactose intolerance. It is known that activated carbon ensures the removal of heavy metals from the body by adsorbing, and slows down the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, the effects of activated carbon on the formation of yogurt were investigated.In this study, before investigating the effects of activated carbon on milk fermentation, its physical properties were determined by electron microscopy. Lactose and calcium interactions were determined in silico studies of activated carbon on yogurt. Yogurt with added activated carbon was created and protein, fat, lactic acid, pH, calcium, sensory analyzes, and microbiological parameters were determined in groups on different days. In the study, it was determined that the use of activated carbon during milk fermentation did not impair the physical, chemical, sensory and microbiological structural properties of yogurt.


Yogurt, activated carbon, microbiological structural

Download full text   |   How to Cite   |   Download XML Files

  • Akyıldız, H. (2007). H3PO4 aktivasyonu ile zeytin çekirdeğinden aktif karbon üretimi (Tez), İTÜ, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü.İstanbul.p 10.
  • Akyüz, N. (1980). Süt ve süt ürünlerini duysal değerlendirme ve derecelemede temel esaslar. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 11(3-4).
  • Andersen, S. R. (1993). Effects of waste water treatment on the species composition and antibiotic resistance of coliform bacteria. Current Microbiology, 26(2), 97-103. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/bf01577343.
  • Anirudhan, T. & Sreekumari, S. (2011). Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from industrial effluents using activated carbon derived from waste coconut buttons. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 23(12), 1989-1998. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(10)60515-3.
  • Aryana, K. J. & Olson, D. W. (2017). A 100-Year Review: Yogurt and other cultured dairy products. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(12), 9987-10013. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-12981.
  • Badertscher, R., Berger, T. & Kuhn, R. (2007). Densitometric determination of the fat content of milk and milk products. International Dairy Journal, 17(1), 20-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2005.12.013.
  • Bohli, T., Ouederni, A., Fiol, N. & Villaescusa, I. (2015). Evaluation of an activated carbon from olive stones used as an adsorbent for heavy metal removal from aqueous phases. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 18(1), 88-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2014.05.009.
  • Bonilla-Velez, J. & Marin-Cuero, D. J. (2017). The use of activated charcoal for acute poisonings. International Journal of Medical Students, 5(1), 45-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/ijms.2017.169.
  • Burchacka, E., Pstrowska, K., Beran, E., Fałtynowicz, H., Chojnacka, K. & Kułażyński, M. (2021). Antibacterial Agents Adsorbed on Active Carbon: A New Approach for S. aureus and E. coli Pathogen Elimination. Pathogens, 10(8), 1066. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081066.
  • Çakmakcı, S., Türkoğlu, H. & Çağlar, A. (1997). Meyve çeşidi ve muhafaza süresinin meyveli yoğurtlarin bazi kalite kriterleri üzerine etkisi. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 28(3).
  • Casellas, F., Varela, E., Aparici, A., Casaus, M. & Rodríguez, P. (2009). Development, validation, and applicability of a symptoms questionnaire for lactose malabsorption screening. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 54(5), 1059-1065. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-008-0443-3.
  • Çelikyurt, G. (2008). Sürk peynirinin bazı özelliklerinin belirlenmesi ve izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin PCR yöntemiyle tanımlanması, Namık Kemal Üniversitesi. Tekirdağ.
  • Davis, J., Ashton, T. & McCaskill, M. (1971). Enumeration and viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in yogurts. Dairy Indus.
  • Delacour, H., Leduc, A., Louçano-Perdriat, A., Plantamura, J. & Ceppa, F. (2017). Diagnosis of genetic predisposition for lactose intolerance by high resolution melting analysis. Annales de Biologie Clinique. https://doi.org/10.1684/abc.2016.1210.
  • Dennington, R., Keith, T., & Millam, J. (2009). Semichem Inc. Shawnee Mission KS, GaussView, Version, 5.
  • Du, J., Zhang, Y., Ming, J., Liu, J., Zhong, L., Liang, Q., Fan, L. & Jiang, J. (2016). Evaluation of the tracing effect of carbon nanoparticle and carbon nanoparticle-epirubicin suspension in axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer treatment. World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 14(1), 1-8. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186%2Fs12957-016-0925-2.
  • Duchaufour, P. (1970). Précis de Pedologie. Massou et Cie, Amazon Publisher, París. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jpln.19711290313.
  • Fierro, V., Torné-Fernández, V., Montané, D. & Celzard, A. (2008). Adsorption of phenol onto activated carbons having different textural and surface properties. Microporous And Mesoporous Materials, 111(1-3), 276-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2007.08.002
  • Fisberg, M. & Machado, R. (2015). History of yogurt and current patterns of consumption. Nutrition Reviews, 73(1), 4-7. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuv020.
  • Gaussian 09, M. J. F., G. W. Trucks, H. B. Schlegel, G. E. Scuseria, M. A. Robb, J. R. Cheeseman, G. Scalmani, V. Barone, B. Mennucci, G. A. Petersson, H. Nakatsuji, M. Caricato, X. Li, H. P. Hratchian, A. F. Izmaylov, J. Bloino, G. Zheng, J. L. Sonnenberg, M. Hada, M. Ehara, K. Toyota, R. Fukuda, J. Hasegawa, M. Ishida, T. Nakajima, Y. Honda, O. Kitao, H. Nakai, T. Vreven, J. A. Montgomery, Jr., J. E. Peralta, F. Ogliaro, M. Bearpark, J. J. Heyd, E. Brothers, K. N. Kudin, V. N. Staroverov, R. Kobayashi, J. Normand, K. Raghavachari, A. Rendell, J. C. Burant, S. S. Iyengar, J. Tomasi, M. Cossi, N. Rega, J. M. Millam, M. Klene, J. E. Knox, J. B. Cross, V. Bakken, C. Adamo, J. Jaramillo, R. Gomperts, R. E. Stratmann, O. Yazyev, A. J. Austin, R. Cammi, C. Pomelli, J. W. Ochterski, R. L. Martin, K. Morokuma, V. G. Zakrzewski, G. A. Voth, P. Salvador, J. J. Dannenberg, S. Dapprich, A. D. Daniels, Ö. Farkas, J. B. Foresman, J. V. Ortiz, J. Cioslowski, and D. J. Fox, (2009). Gaussian 09. Wallingford CT, (2009). Gaussian, Inc. 09.
  • Groth Hoegberg, L. C., Christophersen, A.-B., Christensen, H. R. & Angelo, H. R. (2005). Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal–yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal–water slurry in vivo and in vitro. Clinical Toxicology, 43(4), 269-275. PMID: 16035203.
  • Halkman, K. (2005). Gıda Mikrobiyolojisi Uygulamaları (Editör, Halkman). Merck Gıda Mikrobiyolojisi Uygulamaları, 261-281.
  • Huang, G., Chen, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Q., Liu, Y., Qian, L., Chen, J. & Ni, Q. (2004). Effect of injecting activated carbon ultramicroparticles around the gastric tumor on staining lymph node. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, 84(24), 2070-2072. PMID:15730618.
  • Janiaski, D., Pimentel, T., Cruz, A. & Prudencio, S. (2016). Strawberry-flavored yogurts and whey beverages: What is the sensory profile of the ideal product? Journal of Dairy Science, 99(7), 5273-5283. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10097.
  • Jaroniec, M. & Choma, J. (1986). Characterization of heterogeneity of activated carbons by utilizing the benzene adsorption data. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 15(6), 521-536. https://doi.org/10.1016/0254-0584(86)90058-1.
  • Kebede, A. (2005). Microbial diversity of naturally fermented milk produced by smallholder milk producers in South Africa, University of the Free State.
  • Kosikowski, F. & Mistry, V. (1999). Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods. Vol 1, Origins and Principles, 739 pp. Vol 2, Procedures and Analysis, 2nd printing. https://openprairie.sdstate.edu/dairy_pubdb/234.
  • Larsen, L. C. & Cummings, D. M. (1998). Oral poisonings: guidelines for initial evaluation and treatment. American Family Physician, 57(1), 85. PMID:9447216.
  • Lourens-Hattingh, A. & Viljoen, B. (2001). Growth and survival of a probiotic yeast in dairy products. Food Research International, 34(9), 791-796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(01)00085-0.
  • Mann, E. J. (1976). Fruit-flavoured yoghurt and dairy products. Dairy Industries International (UK).
  • Marsh, H. & Rodriguez-Reinonso, F. (2006). Activated carbon Elsevier Science & Technology Books. Amsterdam, 89-100. eBook ISBN: 9780080455969.
  • Menéndez-Díaz, J. & Martín-Gullón, I. (2006). Types of carbon adsorbents and their production. Interface science and technology, Elsevier. 7: 1-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1573-4285(06)80010-4.
  • Morgan, I. & Fink, C. (1989). Activated carbon production. Chem. Ind. Eng, 2, 219.
  • Neuvonen, P. J. & Olkkola, K. T. (1988). Oral activated charcoal in the treatment of intoxications. Medical Toxicology and Adverse Drug Experience, 3(1), 33-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03259930.
  • Olson, K. R., Anderson, I. B., Benowitz, N. L., Blanc, P. D., Clark, R. F., Kearney, T. E., Kim-Katz, S. Y. & Wu, A. H. (2012). Poisoning & drug overdose, McGraw Hill Medical New York, NY, USA.
  • Peters, R. L., Krawiec, M., Koplin, J. J. & Santos, A. F. (2021). Update on food allergy. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 32(4), 647-657. https://doi.org/10.1111/pai.13443.
  • Shahraki, M. H., Maskooki, A. & Faezian, A. (2014). Effect of various sonication modes on permeation flux in cross flow ultrafiltration membrane. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2(4), 2289-2294.
  • Shi, Z., Neoh, K. & Kang, E. (2007). Antibacterial and adsorption characteristics of activated carbon functionalized with quaternary ammonium moieties. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 46(2), 439-445. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie0608096.
  • van Dijk, M., Morley, T., Rau, M. L. & Saghai, Y. (2021). A meta-analysis of projected global food demand and population at risk of hunger for the period 2010–2050. Nature Food, 2(7), 494-501. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-021-00322-9.